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They paid tribute to larger centres of civilisation in the region, such as Imperial China or the Majapahit Empire in modern-day Indonesia.
Some pre-Philippine kingdoms earned quite a reputation for quality items and fairness in trade that the Chinese, for instance, made them preferential trading partners over the likes of Japan.
War erupted again as the Filipinos fought the Americans in a conflict called the Philippine Insurrection or the Philippine-American War.
The earliest settlement routes, however, remain contested between Borneo and Taiwan.
By the first millennium CE, the various isolated communities of the islands evolved into important trade posts attracting various merchants from as far as India and China, and by the 1300s Islam made its headway, starting with the Sulu Islands to the southwest and reaching as far as Manila.
The classical period of precolonial Philippine historytechnically, "pre-Philippine history", as the name is obviously of colonial origin, named for King Philip II of Spainis known largely from third-party accounts from elsewhere in East and Southeast Asia, but the oldest concrete artifact of a proto-Philippine provenance is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a record of a royal debt pardon dated, luckily very specifically, to 900 CE.
It definitively demonstrated that culturally advanced and loosely organised kingdoms were thriving in the area for at least a millennium before the colonial period.
That, too, met with resistance from Madrid, and by the time one of the movement's leaders, doctor and novelist José Rizal, was executed on December 30, 1896, calls for reform had already given way to those for armed revolt.
The Philippine Revolution, led by Andres Bonifacio and the "Katipunan" secret society (whose full acronym was KKK, no relation to the American one) broke out in August 1896.
At the same time, the Americans also pacified the Muslim south, which had never been fully conquered by the Spanish and had mostly remained apart from the Philippine Revolution, in a conflict dubbed the Moro Rebellion.
By the mid-1910s the situation had relatively calmed down, during which the Islands experienced a cultural renaissance, and some nationalists elected into the legislature began submitting multiple proposals for Washington to lay down a groundwork for future independence, culminating in the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935, with senator Manuel L. Ten hours after the attacks, the Japanese turned to the Philippines.
Amidst this background Portuguese conquistador Ferdinand Magellan managed to find the islands in 1521 and claimed them on behalf of the Kingdom of Spain.