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After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, such as inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who combined technical and financial expertise to launch Bausch & Lomb in 1861.Not only did they create new industries and thousands of jobs, but Eastman became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music and other local institutions.
In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester.
Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2010, the city's population had declined to 210,565, although the metropolitan area was considerably larger.
The city is about 65 miles (100 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 75 miles (120 km) west of Syracuse; it sits on Lake Ontario's southern shore. New York City is about 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast.
By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488.
In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester's population as 97.6% white and 2.3% black.For the metropolitan area, see Rochester, New York metropolitan area.) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in Western New York.Rochester is the third most populous city in New York state with over 210,000 residents, and its metropolitan area has a population of nearly 1.1 million people.The Rochester area has been the birthplace to such corporations as Kodak, Western Union, Bausch & Lomb, Gleason and Xerox that conduct extensive research and manufacturing in the fields of industrial and consumer products.Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, according to the U. Internal Revenue Service, after the New York City metropolitan area. Development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain.At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops.