Some criminals pose as 'Tourist Police' to extort and rob tourists, including by stopping tourist buses to check proof of identity and search luggage.When travelling by car, keep the doors locked, windows up and valuables out of sight.

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Your passport is a valuable document and attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. By law, you must report the loss or theft of your passport to the Australian Government as soon as possible.

Foreign nationals can enter South Africa with a maximum of Rand (ZAR) 25,000 (local currency) or US$ 10,000 (or equivalent foreign currency).

With a virtual friendship, you may be asked to send money so your 'friend' or prospective marriage partner can travel to see you in Australia.

In some cases, the relationship is terminated with little chance of recovering funds.

Avoid taking photographs or video footage of demonstrations and protests, there have been reports of bystanders’ property being damaged by protestors. This leaves areas without electrical power for several hours and can lead to lengthy traffic delays when traffic lights are affected.

Attacks directed at refugees or immigrants from other African nations have increased with some targeted victims and bystanders killed. You should be particularly cautious when using public transport.

Be careful with bags and backpacks which have been stolen in public places including restaurants and bars. Many ATMs are found in major cities and few in rural areas. Criminals also loiter near ATMs waiting to rob people withdrawing cash. If you receive a scam message, don't be fooled: if it sounds too good to be true, then it probably is.

If you're a victim of a scam don't travel to South Africa to seek restitution because of the risk of physical assault from perpetrators.

More information: Make sure your passport is valid for at least six months from the date you intend to return to Australia.