Often described as being rooted in the works of the medieval scholars Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyyah, Salafism seeks to establish a more “authentic” religious experience predicated on a presumably correct reading of the Quran and the sunnah (the sayings and practices of the Prophet) and away from the supposedbid’ah (innovations) and heretical practices that have “polluted” it.萨拉菲主义是伊斯兰教的一个教义—学术思潮,拥护回归到虔诚先辈(在先知穆罕默德去世前后生活的头3代穆斯林)的方式。萨拉菲主义经常被描述为植根于中世纪学者伊本罕百里和伊本泰米叶的作品之中,它寻求建立更“正宗”的宗教经验,而其前提是正确阅读《古兰经》和圣训(先知的说法和做法),远离假想的异端(创新)和“污染”宗教的异端做法。This current moreover embraces to a certain extent a rejection of the madhhab (legal school) Sunni traditions that had emerged in Islam’s early centuries.

As a relatively modern phenomenon building on the Sunni orthodox revivals of the 18th century, the failures of traditional Muslim authorities to contend with mounting internal and external challenges, as well as the spread of new modernistic discourses, Salafism found a popular following across many Muslim societies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

A smaller but far more influential group fostered close ties with Saudi organizations and preachers – a relationship that was beneficial to both sides.中国萨拉菲派活动人士组成的网络为这些团体的活动提供了极大的便利。这些活动人士毕业于沙特或者沙特的附属机构,如伊玛目沙特大学和麦地那大学等。虽然数字很难得到,但麦地那大学的一项研究结果表明,在1961年至2000/2001年间,沙特向中国大陆652人提供了奖学金。这些人中近76%是在20世纪80年代和90年代拿到奖学金的。不过,相当数量的毕业生(从来没有真正完成学业)被广州和义乌的中间商的工作所吸引,因为他们可以利用自己的阿拉伯语水平。少数人加入了云南和甘肃省由私人经营的宗教院校。在21世纪头十年,中国放松了对雇用受外国培训的伊玛目的长期官方障碍之后,有的人开始主理清真寺。一个较小但更有影响力的组织与沙特组织和神职人员建立了密切的联系——这一关系对双方都有利。The Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, which came under a U.

The effects of this were palpable, ranging from a noticeable increase in the availability of Wahhabi literature across China in the 1930s, as observed by the scholar Ma Tong, to high-profile conversions of detractors of the movement, including Sufi Sheiks.在共和时代,瓦哈比主义在中国赢得了信徒,这主要是穆斯林去沙特汉志地区朝觐的交通发展的副产品,而这要归功于轮船等交通手段的大阔步发展。在1923年至1934年,数百名回族穆斯林进行了朝觐。1937年,也就是在日本全面入侵中国之前,据报道超过170名回族在上海登上了驶往麦加的轮船。这样做的效果是显而易见的。正如回族学者马通所说,在上个世纪30年代,中国的瓦哈比文学显著增加。再加上,反对这一运动的人中也有人高调皈依。It is from within this context that the first pronounced Salafiyya sect emerged within China and mostly, interestingly enough, in reaction to the perceived “departure” of the Yihewani movement from its puritan and proto-Wahhabi ethos.

The founding propagator of an explicit Salafism is usually identified as Ma Debao (1867-1977), originally a Yihewani adherent who officiated in various mosques across the Northwest.

The spread of the various Sufi tariqas (orders),such as the Naqshibandis, Kubrawis, and Qadiris, during the late Ming and early Qing in China in the 17th century, as well as the consolidation of Sufi tariqas with their own distinct lineages, tombs and practices (such as the Khuffiyya and Jahriyya), is indicative of this permeability, which endured primarily through the Hajj and overland trade networks via Central Asia and Yunnan.

Unsurprisingly, the transmission of Salafism – or initially Wahhabi ideas – amongst the Hui follows this template in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.自14世纪元朝解体以来,回族穆斯林社区,尤其是中国西北部的回族穆斯林社区虽然相对孤立,但仍然对源自伊斯兰世界其他地方的宗教和思想影响保持开放的态度。在17世纪的明末清初,各种苏菲派(伊斯兰各种神秘主义派别的总称——本刊注)“道乘”(泛指伊斯兰寻道者在导师指引下修炼过程——本刊注),如纳黑希班底教派等,得以传播,再加上苏菲派“道乘”巩固了自己不同的谱系、墓葬和惯例(如虎非耶派的“隐没”以及“哲合忍耶”等),都表明了这种渗透性,这主要是通过朝觐,并通过中亚和云南的陆路贸易网络来传播。不出所料,在19世纪末20世纪初,萨拉菲主义——或者最初的瓦哈比理念——在回族中的传播遵循的就是这个模式。Wahhabism gained converts in China throughout the Republican era, primarily as a byproduct of the growing traffic of Muslim pilgrims going to the Hejaz, facilitated by the proliferation of new means of transportation such as the steamship. In 1937 – prior to the full-fledged Japanese invasion of the country – well over 170 Hui reportedly boarded a steamer in Shanghai bound for Mecca.

His earliest encounters with Salafism came through a visiting – presumably Arab – scholar who settled in Xining, Qinghai in 1934 to teach the Wahhabi doctrine.

This exposure led him to reassess some of his views, although his major intellectual transformation would only come when he departed for the Hajj in 1936, a period during which he spent considerable time at the Salafi Dar Al-Hadith school.在这一背景下,赛莱菲耶派(受沙特瓦哈比运动影响形成的中国伊斯兰教派别——本刊注),在中国首次明显出现,这基本上是对伊赫瓦尼派(中国伊斯兰教派别——本刊注)“脱离”其原瓦哈比精神而做出的反应。人们通常认为,萨拉菲主义的创始传播者是马德宝(1867—1977年)。他原本是伊赫瓦尼派信徒,在整个西北地区的各清真寺都当过阿訇。他最早接触萨拉菲主义是通过一次拜访。1934年,马德宝拜访了在青海省西宁传授瓦哈比教义的一位到访学者(大概是阿拉伯人)。这一接触使马德宝重新评估了自己的一些看法。不过,他的重大认识转变发生在1936年。当时他去朝觐,在此期间,他在萨拉菲哈迪塞学校花了大量时间学习。On returning to China in 1937, Ma Debao became an enthusiastic promoter of the teachings, quickly gathering a following of his own centered in the Xinwang mosque in Linxia, Gansu and breaking away in turn from the Yihewani movement, whom he perceived to have compromised their beliefs.

Nearly 76 percent of these were offered in the 1980s and 90s alone.

While significant numbers of the graduates (who ofter never actually completed their studies) gravitated towards middlemen jobs in Guangzhou or Yiwu where they could utilize their Arabic proficiency, a few joined privately run religious academies in Yunnan or Gansu, and some began officiating in mosques after the longstanding official barriers on the hiring of foreign-trained Imams eased in the 2000s.

In this new environment, these entities began to selectively target their funding towards specific groups – particularly those visibly identified as Salafi in places like Gansu, Qinhai, Ningxia, Shanxi, and Yunnan – and popularize certain discourses that might have been rejected by the IAC for fear of inviting state reprimand.其他显著的渠道包括沙特组织和神职人员在上个世纪80年代来到中国。最初,宗教活动仅限于有影响力的集团,如伊斯兰合作组织、世界穆斯林联盟和伊斯兰开发银行等。这些组织都在IAC的羽翼下运作。除了提供沙特与中国官方之间替代性的沟通渠道,他们的活动还涵盖建造各种伊斯兰研究院,装修大清真寺,启动一个《古兰经》印刷和发行项目(在1987年,作为沙特国王的“王室礼物”,一百多万册《古兰经》在中国全国各地免费发放)。他们还为学生提供神职人员的培训讲习班和奖学金(最初是在中国和巴基斯坦),如此等等。到了80年代中期,中国的宗教政策大幅放宽,允许越来越多的沙特私人组织和个人(主要是带来宗教文献的神职人员)越来越多地在IAC渠道之外活动。在这种新的环境下,这些实体开始选择性地将其经费面向特定群体,特别是甘肃、青海、宁夏、陕西和云南地区那些明显被标识为萨拉菲派的群体,普及了IAC由于担心会招致国家谴责而拒绝的某些宗教话语。The activities of these groups were greatly facilitated by a network of Chinese Salafi activists who had graduated from Saudi or Saudi-affiliated institutions like Imam Saudi University, Umm Al-Qura, and Medina University.