If the victim is cooperative, other money requests can be made as well: to pay for the ladys English lessons, to help out with rent or home repairs, to help with small medical emergencies, and so on.

It is not uncommon for the Translation Scammers to use Travel Scam tricks as well, inviting the victim to help the lady financially with the arrangements for the personal meeting.

The airline tickets can easily be exchange for cash, so don't think that sending tickets buys you any protection.

Step 3: if nothing helps, manually go to 5 or 6 and look through reports and photos posted there. In fact, I would estimate that over 70% of scammers ARE NOT reported online, because people who got scammed often do not know that black lists exist, or how to use them.

Maybe you will find her picture posted online somewhere under a different name. Some victims have such a limited computer knowledge, that a thought of navigating a forum or anti-scam site seems intimidating to them.

If any matches are provided, you can read through them carefully to see if it is a true match or just a coincidence.

Step 2: perform the same search using her email address, then her home address.

Scammers take advantage of people looking for romantic partners, often via dating websites, apps or social media by pretending to be prospective companions.

They play on emotional triggers to get you to provide money, gifts or personal details.

This type of scam is designed to last many months, since the scammers try to trick the victim into paying the translation services for as long as possible.

The scammers employ English-speaking interpreters to impersonate both the lady and the translation company.

And then send for Mikhail, her boyfriend/husband, who's been waiting back in Russia.

There's presumably no way you can guard against this - anyone who is patient can perpetuate this scam anywhere.

Of course, many people would love to live in the west, so she'll marry you...