The sites are considered sacred ancestral homelands by the Hopi and Pueblo people, who maintain oral accounts of their historical migration from Chaco and their spiritual relationship to the land.

Though park preservation efforts can conflict with native religious beliefs, tribal representatives work closely with the National Park Service to share their knowledge and respect the heritage of the Chacoan culture.

The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a remote canyon cut by the Chaco Wash.

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Archaeologists continue to debate when this distinct culture emerged.

The current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era.

Archaeologists debate when a distinct culture emerged, but the current consensus, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around 1200 B. They inhabited the area that is present-day Arizona, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico, called the Four Corners.

They are known for mud-brick villages located along edges of canyons or atop mesas.

In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes.

The Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.They held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences that found form in their architecture.The kiva, a congregational space that was used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient people's community structure.The National Park Service estimates that there are about 4,000 archaeological sites in the park, including more than a dozen immense structures that archaeologists sometimes call "Great Houses." Archaeological research has revealed many discoveries, including a system of roads that connected many Chaco Culture sites, and evidence of astronomical alignments that indicate that some Chaco Culture structures were oriented toward the solstice sun and lunar standstills.Mesa Verdi was home to the Anasazi Indians for more than 1,000 years.They lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-sited dwellings for defense.