One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.

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There, the water stored in large reservoirs and tanks.

When a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins.

At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre.

At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery.

Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns.

He also captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage, eventually producing 26 tons per year.

However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods, especially the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts.

The water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed, ores and driving simple machinery.

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits.