Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold led efforts that hearkened back to an anti-monopoly tradition rooted in American politics by figures such as Andrew Jackson and Thomas Jefferson.

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Other New Deal planners revived experiments suggested in the 1920s, such as the TVA.

The "First New Deal" (1933–34) encompassed the proposals offered by a wide spectrum of groups.

Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal Conservative Coalition.

By 1942–43 they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and blocked major liberal proposals.

(Not included was the Socialist Party, whose influence was all but destroyed.) This first phase of the New Deal was also characterized by fiscal conservatism (see Economy Act, below) and experimentation with several different, sometimes contradictory, cures for economic ills.

There were dozens of new agencies created by Roosevelt through Executive Orders.

They are typically known The American people were generally extremely dissatisfied with the crumbling economy, mass unemployment, declining wages and profits and especially Hoover's policies such as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and the Revenue Act of 1932.

Roosevelt entered office with enormous political capital.

Most programs were enacted between 1933–38, though some were later.