Violent Resistance occurs when violence is used against partners who are themselves violent and controlling.

It can also include destroying a partner’s property or possessions and isolating him or her from friends and relatives. In addition to categorizing the types of dating violence in this way (physical, sexual and emotional; moderate and severe), sociological studies distinguish among the forms of dating violence according to other qualitative characteristics, such as frequency (how often violence is used) and the motives for its use.

Johnson, for example, has described four types of dating violence: intimate (patriarchal) terrorism, common couple violence, violent resistance and mutual violent control.

This includes assaults on partners who have been given “date rape” drugs such a Rohypnol (also known as roofies, roachies, La Rocha and The Forget Pill), G. B or gamma hydroxybutyrate (also known as Liquid Exctasy, Gib, Liquid E and Easy Lay), ketamine (also known as K, Ket and Special K) and MDMA — 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (also known as Ecstasy, XTC, X and Bean).

Emotional or Psychological Abuse includes insulting or swearing at, belittling or threatening a dating partner.

Intimate (Patriarchal) Terrorism may be defined as the systematic use of violence and other abusive behaviour to control a partner.

Violence in these types of relationships is generally frequent and escalates to severe violence.

In contrast, severe violence includes acts for which the risk of permanent or serious injury is high.

According to a Canadian study, severe violence is relatively rare.

While some forms of abusive behaviour, such as acts of physical assault, could result in charges under the Criminal Code of Canada, others, such as ridiculing or otherwise being verbally abusive, are harmful but not criminal offences.

Dating violence has become an issue of increasing concern to researchers and practitioners over the past three decades.

Mutual Violent Control identifies violent exchanges in which both partners are violent and controlling.