In Colombian history and culture, the killings are known as La Violencia (The Violence, 1948–58); most of the people killed were peasants and laborers in rural Colombia.

The Liberal and the Conservative parties agreed to alternate in the exercise of government power by presenting a joint National Front candidate to each election and restricting the participation of other political movements.

The pact was ratified as a constitutional amendment by a national plebiscite on 1 December 1957 and was supported by the Church as well as Colombia's business leaders.

The Colombian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Colombiano, PCC) was formally accredited by the Comintern in 1930.

The PCC began establishing "peasant leagues" in rural areas and "popular fronts" in urban areas, calling for improved living and working conditions, education, and rights for the working class.

This followed the trend of the 1990s during the strengthening of Colombian government forces.

In June 2016, the FARC signed a ceasefire accord with the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos in Havana.

The strength of the FARC–EP forces were high; in 2007, the FARC said they were an armed force of 18,000 men and women; in 2010, the Colombian military calculated that FARC forces consisted of about 13,800 members, 50 percent of whom were armed guerrilla combatants; and, in 2011, the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos, said that FARC–EP forces comprised fewer than 10,000 members.

In 2013 it was reported that 26,648 FARC and ELN members had decided to demobilize since 2002.

After the failed attacks, several army outposts were set up in the area.

In October 1959, the United States sent a "Special Survey Team" composed of counterinsurgency experts to investigate Colombia's internal security situation.

In 2008, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recognized the FARC–EP as a proper army.