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For example, while Maimonides stated in his writings (and his explanation was very much controversial) that the Garden of Eden is a location on earth that will be recovered, the term Gehinnom ("Hell") referred to punishment in this world, and that only the soul of the righteous shall survive and delight in bliss.Nahmanides offered a more comprehensive system, with divine remuneration for better or worse both in this world, via natural means, and in a celestial heaven and hell.These, like the apopathic views of Yeshayahu Leibowitz or the Feminist interpretation of Tamar Ross, had little to no influence on the mainstream.
As in other aspects, Orthodox positions reflect the mainstream of traditional Rabbinic Judaism through the ages.
Attempts to codify these were undertaken by several medieval authorities, including Saadia Gaon and Joseph Albo. Yet the 13 Fundamentals expounded by Maimonides in his Commentary on the Mishnah, authored in the 1160s, eventually proved the most widely accepted.
In more open Orthodox circles, attempts were made to formulate philosophies that would confront modern sensibilities.
Notable examples are the Hegelian-Kabbalistic theology of Abraham Isaac Kook, who viewed history as progressing toward a Messianic redemption in a dialectic fashion which required the strengthening of heretical forces, or the existentialist thought of Joseph B.
Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation, and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim.
Orthodox Judaism includes movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית), Chardal, and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism (יהדות חרדית).This form of Judaism may be referred to as Haredi Judaism, or "Ultra-Orthodox Judaism".According to the New Jersey Press Association, several media entities refrain from using the term "ultra-Orthodox", including the Religion Newswriters Association; JTA, the global Jewish news service; and the Star-Ledger, New Jersey's largest daily newspaper.At a time when excessive contemplation in matters of belief was associated with secularization, luminaries such as Israel Meir Kagan stressed the importance of simple, unsophisticated commitment to the precepts passed down from the Beatified Sages.This is still the standard in the ultra-Orthodox world.Maimonides reserved one article for this tenet, oft mentioned in traditional sources, stating merely that God rewards and punishes without specification.