Internal affairs units within the militsiya itself are usually called "internal security" departments.

The official names of particular militsiya bodies and services in post-Soviet countries are usually very complicated, hence the use of the short term militsiya. Ment is a close equivalent to the English slang term "cop" and has derived from the Lwów dialect.

Its regional branches are officially called Departments of Internal Affairs—city department of internal affairs, raion department of internal affairs, oblast department of internal affairs, etc.

Functionally, Ministries of Internal Affairs are mostly police agencies.

The militsiya of an oblast (or other equivalent subnational entity) is usually headed by a general. Unlike in some other countries' police agencies, militsioners are not assigned permanent partners, but work alone or within larger groups.

Neither uniformed officers nor detectives are allowed to drive police vehicles themselves, so a specialist driver (either a serviceman or a civil employee) is assigned to each car and is also in charge of its maintenance.

The cities, as well as the rural settlements are divided into uchastoks (Russian: , "quarters") with a special uchastkovyi militsioner ("quarter policeman"), assigned to each.

The main duty of uchastkovyi is to maintain close relations with the residents of his quarter and gather information among them.

Uchastkovyi is neither a chief police officer in a given community nor a universal one (not combining detective, incarceration or special tactics tasks).

The system of uchastkovyis dates back to imperial times when uriadniks were conducting lowest-level policing in rural areas.

Uchastkovyi militsioners possess separate small offices within their quarters and maintain citizens admittance in definite weekdays.

This system slightly resembles the US system of sheriffs but shows some notable differences.

Uchastkovyi is also responsible for tackling minor offences like family violence, loud noise, residential area parking etc.