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That is not to say that all sociological phenomena are conflict-based.
It is a power struggle which is most often won by wealthy elite and lost by the common person of common means.
Power is the ability to get what one wants even in the presence of opposition.
These include Conflict, Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism, and Social Exchange Theories; second, Middle-Range Theory is a theory derived from specific scientific findings and focuses on the interrelation of two or more concepts applied to a very specific social process or problem. Merton (1910-2003) was a functional theory-based sociologist who taught the value of using smaller more specifically precise theories in trying to explain smaller and more specific social phenomena. This theory was founded by a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary (1818-1883).
These theories include: Continuity, Activity, Differential Association, and Labeling theories. Marx was a witness to oppression perpetrated by society’s elite members against the masses of poor.
Theory is a set of interrelated concepts used to describe, explain, and predict how society and its parts are related to each other.
The metaphor I’ve used for many years to illustrate the usefulness of a theory is what I call the "goggles metaphor." Goggles are a set of inter-related parts that help us see things more clearly.
In many cases, any of the four main theories can be applied at either the macro or micro levels.
There are really two distinct types of theories: first, Grand Theory is a theory which deals with the universal aspects of social processes or problems and is based on abstract ideas and concepts rather than on case specific evidence. Macro theory is a sociological theory designed to study the larger social, global, and societal level of sociological phenomena.
Conflict theory is especially useful in understanding: war, wealth and poverty, the haves and the have nots, revolutions, political strife, exploitation, divorce, ghettos, discrimination and prejudice, domestic violence, rape, child abuse, slavery, and more conflict-related social phenomena.
Conflict theory claims that society is in a state of perpetual conflict and competition for limited resources.
If the findings and generalizations do not support the theory, the sociologist rethinks and revisits the assumptions they made. In the 1960’s two researchers named Cumming and Henry studied the processes of aging.