He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.

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The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).

The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.

Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.

Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.

Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.).

Mark Antony was amassing political support, but Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar.

Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.

He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.