Further, we have expanded the scope of our work this year to look for areas where a mix of federal approaches is used, such as tax expenditures, direct spending, and federal grant or loan programs.

The following Clinical Reference Document provides the evidence to support the Coaching and Counseling Time Tool.

[3] Goal Setting The American Diabetes Association (ADA), the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE), and the American Heart Association (AHA) all recommend collaborative goal setting as a key component of cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

barriers to updating medicare-38barriers to updating medicare-68

[33] PCPs generally accept and value this health promotion and disease prevention role. The transtheoretical model and primary care: "The Times They Are A Changin'".

[34,35] All prevention-oriented interactions between clinicians and patients have a counseling dimension; i.e., they focus on patient behavior change, whether scheduling a mammogram or beginning a regular exercise regimen.

In some instances of duplication, overlap, or fragmentation, it may be appropriate for multiple agencies or entities to be involved in the same programmatic or policy area due to the nature or magnitude of the federal effort.

However, the areas discussed in the first section of this report identify instances where multiple government programs or activities have led to inefficiencies, and we determined that greater efficiencies or effectiveness might be achievable.

This annual report for 2012 presents 51 areas where programs may be able to achieve greater efficiencies or become more effective in providing government services.

This report describes 32 areas in which we found evidence of duplication, overlap, or fragmentation among federal government programs.

[67] The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the American Heart Association (AHA) all recommend physical activity counseling of some type in the primary care setting.

[68-72] Inconsistent Shared Decision-Making between Providers and Patients Knowledge of diagnostic tests, drugs or surgery has been shown to be not much better in those undergoing the interventions than those NOT undergoing them.

The following bookmarks are available to move around the Clinical Reference Document.

You may also download a printable version for future reference. Expert Committee Recommendations Regarding the Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Summary Report.

Control of major cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity) and co-morbid conditions (diabetes) has been the centerpiece of guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.