This chert, formed in volcanic hot springs, preserved several species of early plants in cellular detail by petrification.

The Scale of the Universe from Big to Small (youtube) The Scale of the Universe from Small to Big (youtube) NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) The Scale of the Universe - Interactive (manual control scale) Sizes (nano) Stars and Galaxies started to form.

Reionization marks the point at which the hydrogen in the Universe became ionized.

Cretaceous–Paleogene Extinction Event is also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth that occurred over a geologically short period of time approximately 66 million years ago.

With the exception of some ectothermic species like the leatherback sea turtle and crocodiles, no tetrapods weighing more than 25 kilograms (55 lb) survived.

As a rule, to be considered a living fossil, the fossil species must be old relative to the time of origin of the extant clade. It has been defined as "short-term (hours or days to kyrs) locally, regionally, or interregionally pervasive changes in the ecological, biogeographical, and/or evolutionary character of biotas that are isochronous or nearly so throughout their range".

Bioevents either relate to diversification of a particular fossil group or a reduction, these may equate to speciation events or extinction events, or may only represent migration.(3.9 Billion Years since the Birth of Earth, and 2.9 Billion Years since Microorganisms Formed)The earth was completely covered in Ice.Snowball Earth Choanoflagellate are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.Galaxy z is 13.1 billion years old, only about 700 million years younger than the universe. That was when the Moon Formed, the Moon was twice as close then it is now causing 10,000 ft. (1.5 Billion Years since the Birth of Earth) - 2.4 billion years ago, oxygen in the atmosphere suddenly increased by about 10,000 times in just 200 million years.Ocean organisms and primitive animals start to evolve.Almost all the present phyla plants (Asterids - Verbena) appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals who made its earliest known appearance later, in the Lower Ordovician. First land plants occurs in the Ordovician, in the form of fossil spores.